Septuagint in the Pauline Epistles
II. 1 & 2 Corinthians


The Wisdom of the Wise Will Perish
Isa 29:14 διὰ τοῦτο ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ προσθήσω τοῦ μετατεθῆναι τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον καὶ μεταθήσω αὐτοὺς καὶ ἀπολῶ τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν καὶ τὴν σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν κρύψω. 1Cor 1:19 γέγραπται γάρ· ἀπολῶ τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν καὶ τὴν σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν ἀθετήσω.
Almost exact quote except Isa has "I shall hide" while 1Cor has "I shall nullify".


Let Him Who Boasts Boast in the Lord
Jer 9:24 ἀλλ’ ἢ ἐν τούτῳ καυχάσθω ὁ καυχώμενος, συνίειν καὶ γινώσκεν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος ὁ ποιῶν ἔλεος καὶ κρίμα καὶ δικαιοσύνην ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὅτι ἐν τούτοις τὸ θέλημά μου, λέγει Κύριος. 1Cor 1:31 ἵνα καθὼς γέγραπται· ὁ καυχώμενος ἐν κυρίῳ καυχάσθω.

2Cor 10:17 Ὁ δὲ καυχώμενος ἐν κυρίῳ καυχάσθω·


No Eye Has Seen, No Ear Has Heard
Isa 64:4 ἀπὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος οὐκ ἠκούσαμεν, οὐδὲ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἡμῶν εἶδον Θεὸν πλὴν σοῦ καὶ τὰ ἔργα σου, ἃ ποιήσεις τοῖς ὑπομένουσιν ἔλεον. 1Cor 2:9 ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπται· ἃ ὀφθαλμὸς οὐκ εἶδεν καὶ οὖς οὐκ ἤκουσεν καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἀνέβη, ἃ ἡτοίμασεν ὁ θεὸς τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν.
Seems more an allusion than a quote.


He Catches the Wise in Their Craftiness
Job 5:13 καταλαμβάνων σοφοὺς ἐν τῇ φρονήσει, βουλὴν δὲ πολυπλόκων ἐξέστησεν· 1Cor 3:19 ἡ γὰρ σοφία τοῦ κόσμου τούτου μωρία παρὰ τῷ θεῷ ἐστιν. γέγραπται γάρ· δρασσόμενος τοὺς σοφοὺς ἐν τῇ πανουργίᾳ αὐτῶν·
Loose quote, using δρασσόμενος instead of καταλαμβάνων, and πανουργίᾳ instead of φρονήσει.


The Lord Knows the Thoughts of the Wise
Ps 94:11 (LXX 93:11) Κύριος γινώσκει τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὅτι εἰσὶ μάταιοι. 1Cor 3:20 καὶ πάλιν· κύριος γινώσκει τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς τῶν σοφῶν ὅτι εἰσὶν μάταιοι.
Exact quote, except changing "men" to "wise men".


Purge the Evil from Among You
Deut 17:7 καὶ ἡ χεὶρ τῶν μαρτύρων ἔσται ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ ἐν πρώτοις θανατῶσαι αὐτόν, καὶ ἡ χεὶρ τοῦ λαοῦ ἐπ᾿ ἐσχάτων· καὶ ἐξαρεῖς τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν.

Deut 19:19 καὶ ποιήσετε αὐτῷ ὃν τρόπον ἐπονηρεύσατο ποιῆσαι κατὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐξαρεῖς τὸ πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν.

Deut 22:21 καὶ ἐξάξουσι τὴν νεᾶνιν ἐπὶ τὰς θύρας τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῆς, καὶ λιθοβολήσουσιν αὐτὴν ἐν λίθοις, καὶ ἀποθανεῖται, ὅτι ἐποίησεν ἀφροσύνην ἐν υἱοῖς Ἰσραὴλ ἐκπορνεῦσαι τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῆς· καὶ ἐξαρεῖς τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν.

Deut 22:24 ἐξάξετε ἀμφοτέρους ἐπὶ τὴν πύλην τῆς πόλεως αὐτῶν καὶ λιθοβοληθήσονται ἐν λίθοις καὶ ἀποθανοῦνται· τὴν νεᾶνιν, ὅτι οὐκ ἐβόησεν ἐν τῇ πόλει, καὶ τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ὅτι ἐταπείνωσε τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ πλησίον· καὶ ἐξαρεῖς τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν.

Deut 24:7 Ἐὰν δὲ ἁλῷ ἄνθρωπος κλέπτων ψυχὴν ἐκ τῶν ἀδελφῶν αὐτοῦ τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ καὶ καταδυναστεύσας αὐτὸν ἀποδῶται, ἀποθανεῖται ὁ κλέπτης ἐκεῖνος· καὶ ἐξαρεῖς τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν.

1Cor 5:13 τοὺς δὲ ἔξω ὁ θεὸς κρινεῖ. ἐξάρατε τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν.
Almost exact quote, except changing the verb from singular ἐξαρεῖς to plural ἐξάρατε; and note τὸ πονηρὸν (neuter) in Deut 19:19 instead of τὸν πονηρὸν (masculine) everywhere else.


Do Not Muzzle an Ox Treading Out the Grain
Deut 25:4 Οὐ φιμώσεις βοῦν ἁλοῶντα. 1Cor 9:9 ἐν γὰρ τῷ Μωϋσέως νόμῳ γέγραπται· οὐ κημώσεις βοῦν ἀλοῶντα. μὴ τῶν βοῶν μέλει τῷ θεῷ

1Tim 5:18 λέγει γὰρ ἡ γραφή· βοῦν ἀλοῶντα οὐ φιμώσεις, καί· ἄξιος ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ.

1Tim 5:18 has exact wording, but different word order; 1Cor 9:9 uses a different verb.


The People Eat and Drink and Engage in Revelry
Ex 32:6 καὶ ὀρθρίσας τῇ ἐπαύριον ἀνεβίβασεν ὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ προσήνεγκε θυσίαν σωτηρίου, καὶ ἐκάθισεν ὁ λαὸς φαγεῖν καὶ πιεῖν καὶ ἀνέστησαν παίζειν. 1Cor 10:7 μηδὲ εἰδωλολάτραι γίνεσθε καθώς τινες αὐτῶν, ὥσπερ γέγραπται· ἐκάθισεν ὁ λαὸς φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν καὶ ἀνέστησαν παίζειν.
Exact quote, except a slight variation of spelling (πεῖν = short form for πιεῖν).


The Pagans Sacrifice to Demons
Deut 32:17 ἔθυσαν δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ Θεῷ, θεοῖς, οἷς οὐκ ᾔδεισαν· καινοὶ καὶ πρόσφατοι ἥκασιν, οὓς οὐκ ᾔδεισαν οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν. 1Cor 10:20 ἀλλ᾿ ὅτι ἃ θύουσιν, δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ θύουσιν· οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς κοινωνοὺς τῶν δαιμονίων γίνεσθαι.
Very close quote, except aorist ἔθυσαν replaced by present tense θύουσιν, and word order changed.


The Earth is the Lord's
Ps 24:1 (LXX 23:1) Τοῦ Κυρίου ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς, ἡ οἰκουμένη καὶ πάντες οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ. 1Cor 10:26 τοῦ κυρίου γὰρ ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς.
Exact quote.


God Speaks to His People through Foreigners
Isa 28:11-12 διὰ φαυλισμὸν χειλέων διὰ γλώσσης ἑτέρας, ὅτι λαλήσουσι τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ 12λέγοντες αὐτῷ· τοῦτο τὸ ἀνάπαυμα τῷ πεινῶντι καὶ τοῦτο τὸ σύντριμμα, καὶ οὐκ ἠθέλησαν ἀκούειν. 1Cor 14:21 ἐν τῷ νόμῳ γέγραπται ὅτι ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις καὶ ἐν χείλεσιν ἑτέρων λαλήσω τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ καὶ οὐδ᾿ οὕτως εἰσακούσονταί μου, λέγει κύριος.
A loose quote.


Everything Under His Feet
Ps 8:6 (LXX 8:7) καὶ κατέστησας αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σου· πάντα ὑπέταξας ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ. 1Cor 15:27 πάντα γὰρ ὑπέταξεν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ. ὅταν δὲ εἴπῃ ὅτι πάντα ὑποτέτακται, δῆλον ὅτι ἐκτὸς τοῦ ὑποτάξαντος αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα.

Heb 2:8 πάντα ὑπέταξας ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ. ἐν τῷ γὰρ ὑποτάξαι [αὐτῷ] τὰ πάντα οὐδὲν ἀφῆκεν αὐτῷ ἀνυπότακτον. Νῦν δὲ οὔπω ὁρῶμεν αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα ὑποτεταγμένα·

Heb 2:8 is an exact quote. The 1Cor text changes the preposition slightly and uses the third person.


Let Us Eat and Drink, For Tomorrow We Die
Isa 22:13 αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐποιήσαντο εὐφροσύνην καὶ ἀγαλλίαμα, σφάζοντες μόσχους καὶ θύοντες πρόβατα ὥστε φαγεῖν κρέα καὶ πιεῖν οἶνον λέγοντες· φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν, αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκομεν. 1Cor 15:32 εἰ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον ἐθηριομάχησα ἐν Ἐφέσῳ, τί μοι τὸ ὄφελος; εἰ νεκροὶ οὐκ ἐγείρονται, φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν, αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκομεν.
Exact quote.


The Man Became a Living Being
Gen 2:7 καὶ ἔπλασεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον χοῦν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐνεφύσησεν εἰς τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ πνοὴν ζωῆς, καὶ ἐγένετο ὁ ἄνθρωπος εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν. 1Cor 15:45 οὕτως καὶ γέγραπται, Ἐγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν· ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζῳοποιοῦν.
The Pauline text added πρῶτος and Ἀδὰμ to make it more explicit. "And the first man Adam became a living being."


Death Is Swallowed Up
Isa 25:8 κατέπιεν ὁ θάνατος ἰσχύσας, καὶ πάλιν ἀφεῖλε Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς πᾶν δάκρυον ἀπὸ παντὸς προσώπου· τὸ ὄνειδος τοῦ λαοῦ ἀφεῖλεν ἀπὸ πάσης τῆς γῆς, τὸ γὰρ στόμα Κυρίου ἐλάλησε. 1Cor 15:54 ὅταν δὲ τὸ φθαρτὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσηται ἀφθαρσίαν καὶ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσηται ἀθανασίαν, τότε γενήσεται ὁ λόγος ὁ γεγραμμένος· κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος.
Paul changes the active voice ("Death swallowed them up") to the passive ("Death was swallowed up").


Where, O Death, Is Your Victory?
Hos 13:14 ἐκ χειρὸς ᾅδου ῥύσομαι αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκ θανάτου λυτρώσομαι αὐτούς. ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου, θάνατε; ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου, ᾅδη; παράκλησις κέκρυπται ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν μου. 1Cor 15:55 ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ νῖκος; ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον;
A loose quote. Paul has θάνατε (death) twice, while LXX used θάνατε and ᾅδη (Hades); Paul uses νῖκος (victory), while LXX has δίκη (penalty). HMT ≈ LXX.


The Veil Is Taken Away
Ex 34:34 ἡνίκα δ᾿ ἂν εἰσεπορεύετο Μωυσῆς ἔναντι Κυρίου λαλεῖν αὐτῷ, περιῃρεῖτο τὸ κάλυμμα ἕως τοῦ ἐκπορεύεσθαι. καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἐλάλει πᾶσι τοῖς υἱοῖς Ἰσραὴλ ὅσα ἐνετείλατο αὐτῷ Κύριος, 2Cor 3:16 ἡνίκα δὲ ἐὰν ἐπιστρέψῃ πρὸς κύριον, περιαιρεῖται τὸ κάλυμμα.
Paul changes the impf to the present tense.


I Believed, Therefore I Spoke
Ps 116:10 (LXX ) Ἀλληλούϊα. Ἐπίστευσα, διὸ ἐλάλησα· ἐγὼ δὲ ἐταπεινώθην σφόδρα. 2Cor 4:13 Ἔχοντες δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πίστεως κατὰ τὸ γεγραμμένον· ἐπίστευσα, διὸ ἐλάλησα, καὶ ἡμεῖς πιστεύομεν, διὸ καὶ λαλοῦμεν
Exact quote.


In the Time of My Favor I Listened to You
Isa 49:8 οὕτως λέγει κύριος καιρῷ δεκτῷ ἐπήκουσά σου καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σωτηρίας ἐβοήθησά σοι καὶ ἔδωκά σε εἰς διαθήκην ἐθνῶν τοῦ καταστῆσαι τὴν γῆν καὶ κληρονομῆσαι κληρονομίαν ἐρήμου. 2Cor 6:2 λέγει γάρ· καιρῷ δεκτῷ ἐπήκουσά σου καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σωτηρίας ἐβοήθησά σοι. ἰδοὺ νῦν καιρὸς εὐπρόσδεκτος, ἰδοὺ νῦν ἡμέρα σωτηρίας.
Exact quote.


I Will Be Their God, and They Will Be My People
Lev 26:12 καὶ ἐμπεριπατήσω ἐν ὑμῖν καὶ ἔσομαι ὑμῶν θεός καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μου λαός.

Ezek 37:27 καὶ ἔσται ἡ κατασκήνωσίς μου ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς θεός καὶ αὐτοί μου ἔσονται λαός.

Jer 32:38 (LXX 39:38) καὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν καὶ ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς θεόν.

2Cor 6:16 τίς δὲ συγκατάθεσις ναῷ θεοῦ μετὰ εἰδώλων; ἡμεῖς γὰρ ναὸς θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος, καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι ἐνοικήσω ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐμπεριπατήσω καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτῶν θεὸς καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μου λαός.
The 2Cor quote is pretty close to the Lev passage, except the people are in third person, not second person, and it adds another verb ἐνοικήσω. In the Ezek passage, instead of "I shall walk among them", it has "My tabernacle will be among them".
Jer 32:38 is added for reference, but the wording is slightly different.


Come Out and Be Separate
Isa 52:11 ἀπόστητε ἀπόστητε ἐξέλθατε ἐκεῖθεν καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε ἐξέλθατε ἐκ μέσου αὐτῆς, ἀφορίσθητε οἱ φέροντες τὰ σκεύη κυρίου.

Jer 20:34 καὶ ἐξάξω ὑμᾶς ἐκ τῶν λαῶν καὶ εἰσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς ἐκ τῶν χωρῶν οὗ διεσκορπίσθητε ἐν αὐταῖς ἐν χειρὶ κραταιᾷ καὶ ἐν βραχίονι ὑψηλῷ καὶ ἐν θυμῷ κεχυμένῳ.

2Cor 6:17 διὸ ἐξέλθατε ἐκ μέσου αὐτῶν καὶ ἀφορίσθητε, λέγει κύριος, καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε· κἀγὼ εἰσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς.
2Cor 6:17 is a combined quote from Isa 52:11 (changing "come out from her midst" to "come out from their midst", and switching order of the two clauses) and Jer 20:34.
Ezek 20:41 is not listed here, but it's similarly quoted as 20:34 ("εἰσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς").


I Will Be Your Father, You Will Be My Son
2Sam 7:14 ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν καὶ ἐὰν ἔλθῃ ἡ ἀδικία αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐλέγξω αὐτὸν ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἀνδρῶν καὶ ἐν ἁφαῖς υἱῶν ἀνθρώπων.

1Chr 17:13 ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν καὶ τὸ ἔλεός μου οὐκ ἀποστήσω ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ ὡς ἀπέστησα ἀπὸ τῶν ὄντων ἔμπροσθέν σου.

2Cor 6:18 καὶ ἔσομαι ὑμῖν εἰς πατέρα καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μοι εἰς υἱοὺς καὶ θυγατέρας, λέγει κύριος παντοκράτωρ.

Heb 1:5 Τίνι γὰρ εἶπέν ποτε τῶν ἀγγέλων· υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε; καὶ πάλιν· ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν;

Heb 1:5 is an exact quote of both OT texts, while 2Cor has a few differences: ① ἐγὼ omitted, ② third person singular changed to second person plural, and ③ "son" becomes "sons and daughters".


They Did Not Gather Too Much Nor Too Little
Ex 16:18 καὶ μετρήσαντες γομόρ, οὐκ ἐπλεόνασεν ὁ τὸ πολύ, καὶ ὁ τὸ ἔλαττον οὐκ ἠλαττόνησεν· ἕκαστος εἰς τοὺς καθήκοντας παρ᾿ ἑαυτῷ συνέλεξαν. 2Cor 8:15 καθὼς γέγραπται· ὁ τὸ πολὺ οὐκ ἐπλεόνασεν, καὶ ὁ τὸ ὀλίγον οὐκ ἠλαττόνησεν.
Exact quote, except word order.


He Has Scattered His Gifts to the Poor
Ps 112:9 (LXX 111:9) ἐσκόρπισεν, ἔδωκε τοῖς πένησιν· ἡ δικαιοσύνη αὐτοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος, τὸ κέρας αὐτοῦ ὑψωθήσεται ἐν δόξῃ. 2Cor 9:9 καθὼς γέγραπται· ἐσκόρπισεν, ἔδωκεν τοῖς πένησιν, ἡ δικαιοσύνη αὐτοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.
Exact quote, except "forever" vs "forever and ever".


God Supplies Seed for the Sower
Isa 55:10 ὡς γὰρ ἂν καταβῇ ὁ ὑετὸς ἢ χιὼν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀποστραφῇ, ἕως ἂν μεθύσῃ τὴν γῆν, καὶ ἐκτέκῃ καὶ ἐκβλαστήσῃ καὶ δῷ σπέρμα τῷ σπείραντι καὶ ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν. 2Cor 9:10 ὁ δὲ ἐπιχορηγῶν σπόρον τῷ σπείροντι καὶ ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν χορηγήσει καὶ πληθυνεῖ τὸν σπόρον ὑμῶν καὶ αὐξήσει τὰ γενήματα τῆς δικαιοσύνης ὑμῶν.
Close quote, using ἐπιχορηγέω instead of δίδωμι, and changing σπέρμα to σπόρος.




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