Lesson 24 μι Verbs


I. Introduction

II. The 5 Rules of μι verbs

  1. μι verbs reduplicate with iota to form the present (exception: δείκνυμι)
    e.g., δίδωμι (δο-), τίθημι (θε-)
    For ἵστημι (στα-), after redup to σίστημι, σ is replaced by rough breathing
  2. μι verbs do not ordinarily use a connecting vowel (athematic)
    (exception: a connecting vowel is used in the impf sg and future)
  3. μι verbs use different endings only in the present (see paradigm)
    thematic:- ς ι μεν τε νσι
    athematic:μι ς σι μεν τε ασι
    (cf. δίδωσιν = he gives, λύουσιν = they loose)
  4. The stem vowel can lengthen, shorten or drop out (ablaut)
    e.g., δίδωμι (δο-): ο lengthens to ω in the present singular
  5. Most μι verbs use κα as TF in the aorist (kappa aorists)
    (exception: ἵστημι uses σα; it also has a 2-aor ἕστην)

III. Paradigms of δίδωμι, ἵστημι, τίθημι, δείκνυμι
 
 

Notes on ἵστημι
1. It has both 1-aor (transitive) and 2-aor (intransitive). Cf. Mt 18:2 vs. Lk 24:36
Matt 18:2 προσκαλεσάμενος παιδίον ἔστησεν αὐτὸ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν.
Summoning a child, he stood him in the midst of them.
Luke 24:36 αὐτὸς ἔστη ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· εἰρήνη ὑμῖν.
HE stood in the midst of them and says to them, Peace to you.

2. The perfectis intransitive, and often has a present tense force.
John 1:26 μέσος ὑμῶν ἕστηκεν ὃν ὑμεῖς οὐκ οἴδατε.
In your midst stands one whom you do not know.

 
 

Examples
Matt 6:11 τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ὑμῖν σήμερον.
Luke 11:3 τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δίδου ὑμῖν τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν.
(ἐπιούσιον = daily, sufficient for the next day)

John 1:17 ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη, ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο.

John 1:12 ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ.

John 3:16 οὕτως γὰρ ἠγάπησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν κόσμον, ὥστε τὸν υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ (only) ἔδωκεν, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν μὴ ἀπόληται ἀλλ’ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον.

Luke 11:13 εἰ οὖν ὑμεῖς πονηροὶ ὑπάρχοντες οἴδατε δόματα (gifts) ἀγαθὰ διδόναι τοῖς τέκνοις ὑμῶν, πόσῳ (how much) μᾶλλον ὁ παγὴρ ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ δώσει πνεῦμα ἅγιον τοῖς αἰτοῦσιν αὐτόν.

Matt 6:33 ζητεῖτε δὲ πρῶτον τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν διδαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῦτα πάντα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν.

 
 
 

Assignments
Vocabulary. The 5 Rules of μι-verbs. Exercise. Memorize one of the verses above.

Go over the μι-verb paradigms. Do not try to memorize them. Instead, see how the rules are applied. Concentrate on recognition.