Lesson 13 Verbal Roots

I. Root vs Stem
    1. Root = the most basic form of a verb
        Stem = the basic form of a verb in a particular tense
    2. Different tense stems are formed from the verbal root (not from the present stem).
    3. The present stem is the most "irregular" tense stem.

II. Major patterns of tense stems
    Pattern 1. Verbal root = Present tense stem (~80% of verbs)
        a. Roots ending in i/u (e.g., luvw, future luvsw)
        b. Roots ending in a stop (e.g., blevpw, future blevyw)
        c. Contract verbs (e.g., poievw, future poihvsw)
        d. Liquid verbs (e.g., mevnw, future menw')

    Pattern 2. Roots ending in a stop
        a. izw/azw verbs: roots ending in dental
            e.g., baptivzw, future baptivsw (root baptid-)
        b. assw verbs: roots ending in velar
            e.g., khruvssw, future khruvxw (root khrug-)

    Pattern 3. Double consonants: roots in single consonant
        e.g., bavllw, future balw' (root bal-)

    Pattern 4. Letter(s) added to form the present tense
        a. iota (usually "metathesis" also occurs)
            e.g., ar- + i = ari = air = ai[rw, future ajrw'
        b. (i)sk
            e.g., eur- + isk = euJrivskw, future euJrhvsw
        c. nu
            e.g., pivnw, future pivomai (root pi-)
        d. tau (roots ending in labial)
            e.g., klevptw, future klevyw (root klep-)

    Pattern 5. Different roots altogether (only a few)
Present
Future
e[rcomai (erc-) ejleuvsomai (eleuq-)
levgw (leg-) ejrw' (Ûer-)
oJravw (ora-) o[yomai (op-)
eJsqivw (esqi-) favgomai (fag-)
fevrw (fer-) oi[sw (oi-)

 

Examples
Matt 13:41 ajpostelei' oJ uiJo;ß tou' ajnqrwvpou tou;ß ajggevlouß aujtou'.

Mark 16:17 ejn tw/' ojnovmativ mou daimovnia ejkbalou'sin, glwvssaiß lalhvsousin kainai'ß (new).

Acts 1:11 ou|toß oJ ÅIhsou'ß ... ou&twß ejleuvsetai.

Matt 5:8 makavrioi oiJ kaqaroiÆ (pure) th/' kardiva/, o&ti aujtoiÆ to;n qeo;n o[yontai.

Rom 8:31 Tiv ou\n ejrou'men pro;ß tau'ta; eij oJ qeo;ß uJpeÆr hJmw'n, tivß kaqÅ hJmw'n;
 
 
 

Assignments
Vocabulary. Exercise.

Learn the patterns. In vocabulary, memorize the root along with the lexical form!!

The materials in this lesson closely follow a revised Chapter 20 of Basics of Biblical Greek. If you are insterested, you may download it (in PDF format) at Dr. Bill Mounce's website.