Lesson 9 The Article

This lesson introduces some important functions of the Greek article.

  1. As Personal Pronoun (especially in ὁ δὲ construction)
    John 4:32 δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς. But he said to them.
  2. As Function Marker (Recall the role of article in adjectives, Lesson 6)

    1. Marking a phrase as substantive
      Matt 5:15 πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ. To all who are in the house.

      Rom 9:25 καλέσω τὸν οὐ λαόν μου λαόν μου.
      Literally, I shall call the not-my-people my people.

    2. Marking a phrase as attributive
      Rom 8:39 (... will be able to separate us from)
      τῆς ἀγάγης τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς ἐν Xριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν.
      ... the love of God which is in Jesus Christ our Lord.

      Rom 8:3 (God, sending his own son in the likeness of the flesh of sin and for sin, condemned) τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί.
      Would it be the same if Paul had written τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τὴν ἐν τῇ σαρκί ?

  3. Subject or Predicate Nominative (PN)?
    Priority: (1) Pronoun, (2) Proper name, (3) Articular noun, (4) Word order (if both articular), (5) Context (if both anarthrous).

    John 20:31 Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ χριστός.

    Matt 3:17 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός.

    1Cor 15:56 τὸ δὲ κέντρον (sting) τοῦ θανάτου ἡ ἁμαρτία, ἡ δὲ δύναμις (power) τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ νόμος.

    1Cor 12:3 οὐδεὶς δύναται εἰπεῖν· Κύριος Ἰησοῦς, εἰ μὴ ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. (δύναται εἰπεῖν = is able to say)

    John 5:27 ὅτι υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου ἐστίν.

    John 1:1c καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.

    1. Jehovah Witness/Arianism: “and the word is a god.” Is it correct?
      [Colwell’s Rule: A pre-verbal definite PN is usally anarthrous.]
    2. Would it be the same if John had written καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν θεὸς ?
    3. Would it be the same if John had written καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν θεὸς ?
  4. The Granville Sharp Rule (TSKS construction)
    TSKS: the-substantive-καί-substantive
    Conditions: both nouns (1) personal, (2) singular, (3) non-proper

    Titus 2:13 (While we wait for the blessed hope and the glorious appearing) of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ.
    τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ καὶ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

    Issue: Are we talking about one or two persons here? i.e.,

    "our great God, and Savior Jesus Christ" (two persons) or
    "our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ" (one person)


Vocabulary. Study and take the midterm.

No Exercise for this lesson. Most of the materials covered here are for the Intermediate level course. You will NOT be expected to master them.