Lesson 7 Pronouns

I. Introduction

II. Forms

III. Functions



A. Emphatic uses

Mark 1:8 ἐγὼ ἐβάπτισα (I baptized) ὑμᾶς ὕδατι, αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει (he/she/it will baptize) ὑμᾶς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ.

Luke 4:6 σοὶ δώσω (I will give) τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην ἅπασαν καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτῶν.
(ἅπας: a strengthened form of πᾶς, “all”)


B. The 3 uses of αὐτός:

2John 1:6 αὐτη ἡ ἐτολή ἐστιν, ... ἵνα ἑν αὐτῇ περιπατῆτε (you walk).
Can you distinguish these similar forms?

Rev 21:3 αὐτὸς ὁ θεὸς μετ' αὐτῶν ἔσται (he/she/it will be).

John 3:28 αὐτοὶ ὑμεῖς μοι μαρτυρεῖτε (you testify) ὅτι εἶπον (I said) ὅτι οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐγώ ὁ Χριστός.

Mark 14:39 καὶ πάλιν ἀπελθὼν προσηύξατο τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον.
(ἀπελθὼν προσηύξατο = he went away and prayed)

Heb 13:8 Ἰησοῦς Χριστός ἐχθὲς (yesterday) καὶ σήμερον ὁ αὐτὸς καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.
(εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας = into the ages = forever)

Luke 10:7 ἐν αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ οἰκίᾳ (remain!).


C. Relative pronouns

1Cor 15:10 χάριτι (by grace) δὲ θεοῦ εἰμι εἰμι.

1Cor 15:1-2 Γνωρίζω (I make known) δὲ ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον
εὐηγγελισάμην (I proclaimed) ὑμῖν,
καὶ παρελάβετε
(you received),
ἐν καὶ ἑστήκατε (you have stood),
δι' οὗ καὶ σῴζεσθε (you are saved).

John 4:14 ὅς δ' ἂν τίῃ
ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος οὗ ἐγὼ δώσω αὐτῷ,
[will never ever thirst],
ἀλλὰ τὸ ὕδωρ ὃ δώσω αὐτῷ [will become a spring of water ...]
But whoever would drink
out of the water which I shall give to him will never ever thirst,
but the water which I shall give to him will become a spring of water ...

Note “the water which I shall give to him” occurs twice. Why is the case different?

Eph 6:17 καὶ τὴν περικεφαλαίαν τοῦ σωτηρίου δέξασθε
καὶ τὴν μάχαιραν τοῦ πνεύματος, ἐστιν ῥῆμα θεοῦ.

And take the helmet of salvation
and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.

So, which one is the word of God -- the sword or the Spirit?

Matt 1:16 Ἰακὼβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωσὴφ τὸν ἄνδρα Μμαρίας,
ἐξ ἧς ἐγεννήθη Ἰησους ὁ λεγόγενος Χριστός.

And Jacob fathered Joseph, the husband of Mary,
out of whom Jesus was born, who is called Christ.

So, who is the “whom” referring to? Joseph or Mary?

The genealogy regularly emphasize the male who fathers a child (“... fathered ...” 39 times in vv.1-16a), but in v.16b Matthew emphsizes that Mary is the biological parent “of whom” Jesus was born. Futhermore, the passive “was born” -- the only passive among the 40 occurances of “to father” in the genealogy -- prepares for Matthew's emphasis upon divine action in the conception and birth of Jesus (vv.18-25). --BBG p.108


Vocabulary. Paradigms. The 3 uses of αὐτός. Exercise.

The only new paradigm to learn is the first and second person pronouns (but many of them you have already memorized as Vocabulary). The other paradigms are just 2-1-2, which you have already learned.

(The Indefinite Relative, Interrogative and Indefinite pronouns are 3-3. Ignore them for now.)