Lesson 6 Adjectives
- all 3 genders (convention in lexicon: ἀγαθός, -ή, -όν) (for agreement)
- the 2-1-2 and 2-2 paradigms (85% of adjectives in NT are 2-1-2)
- Three functions: attributive, predicate, substantival
- attributive: He is a good man. (agreement)
- predicate: The man is good. (agreement)
- substantival: The good, the bad and the ugly.
- Two positions: attributive vs predicate (i.e., articular vs anarthrous)
Usually (but not always):
- attributive position = attributive/substantival functions
- predicate position = predicate function
- The first vs second attributive
- The 1st attributive position: article + adjective + noun
e.g., ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος
- The 2nd attributive position: article noun + article adjective
e.g., ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἀγαθός
- μου vs ἐμός
τὰς ἐντολάς μου = τὰς ἐμὰς ἐντολάς = τὰς ἐντολὰς τὰς ἐμάς
- regular: add endings
- comparative: -τερος, -α, -ον (e.g., πρεσβύτερος elder)
- superlative: -τατος, -η, -ον (or -ιστος, -η, -ον)
- irregular but common: πλείων, μείζων, μάλλων
- 2 constructions of comparison: ablative or conjunction ἤ ("than")
e.g., John 3:19; 21:15
- the superlative form was on its way out
- replaced by comparative or positive: e.g., Matt 22:38; 1Cor 13:13
- elative: "very", e.g., Luke 16:10
Three ways of saying "eternal life" are found in John's writings:
- ζωὴν αἰώνιον (Jn 3:16 etc, cf. 1Jn 5:13)
- τὴν αἰώνιον ζωήν (Jn 17:3)
- τὴν ζωὴν τὴν αἰώνιον (1Jn 1:2, 25)
Translate the following sentences; for each underlined word, parse and identify its function.
John 10:11 Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν (shepherd) ὁ καλός.
1Cor 10:13 πιστὸς δὲ ὁ θεός.
1John 2:18 γινώσκομεν (we know) ὅτι ἐσχάτη ὥρα ἐστίν.
1John 5:13 Ταῦτα ἔγραψα (I wrote) ὑμῖν ἵνα εἰδῆτε (you may know) ὅτι ζωὴν ἔχετε αἰώνιον.
John 5:21 ὁ πατὴρ (father) ἐγείρει (raises) τοὺς νεκρούς.
Rom 7:12 ὁ νόμος ἅγιος καὶ ἡ ἐντολὴ ἁγία καὶ δικαία (righteous) καὶ ἀγαθή.
Mark 10:18 οὐδεὶς (no one) ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς (one) ὁ θεός.
Paradigm of ἀγαθός.
There is really no new forms to learn, since you have already learned the inflection of the 1st and 2nd declensions. Instead, concentrate on the functions of the adjectives.