Lesson 5 Prepositions

I. A spatial diagram (2/3 of all major prepositions)

II. Forms - no inflection, but note:

  1. elision: when a final vowel comes before another vowel
    e.g., διὰ ἐμοῦ ‣ δι' ἐμοῦ (John 14:6)
  2. aspiration: when a stop comes before a rough breathing
    e.g., ἀπὸ ἀρχῆς ‣ ἀπ' ἀρχῆς (Matt 19:8)
    e.g., ἀπὸ ὑμῶν ‣ ἀφ' ὑμῶν (Matt 21:43)
  3. when ἐκ comes before a vowel
    e.g., οὐκ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ (Rom 2:29)

III. Prepositions and the Greek Case

  1. The meaning of a preposition depends on the case of its object.
  2. The case decides the function; the preposition defines it more clearly.

    with ablative: παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ from the side of God
    with locative: παρὰ τῷ θεῷ by the side of God
    with accusative: παρὰ τὸν θεόν alongside of God

    2Cor 6:2 καιρῷ ἐπήκουσά σου καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σωτηρίας ἐβοήθησά σοι.
    At the acceptable time I heard you, and in the day of salvation I helped you.

IV. Uses

  1. Compound verbs
    e.g., βάλλω = throw, ἐκβάλλω = throw out
    3Jn 1:10 καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἐκβάλλει. (Note the repeating of preposition)
  2. Prepositional phrases
    - usually adverbial
    - diagramming prepositional phrases (see Diagramming guide)



Rev. Chiu's New Year sermon outline:

  1. Past: Without Christ (Eph 2:12) χωρὶς Χριστοῦ
  2. Present: In Christ (2Cor 5:17) ἐν Χριστῷ
  3. Future: With Christ (Phil 3:12) σὺν Χριστῷ

New Testament books:

John 1:1 Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.

Phil 4:4 Χαίρετε (rejoice!) ἐν κυρίῳ πάντοτε (always).

Matt 1:23 Ἐμμανουήλ (עִמָּנוּ אֵל) = μεθ' ἡμῶν ὁ θεός.

Rom 8:31 εἰ (if) ὁ θεὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, τίς (who) καθ' ἡμῶν;

Rom 11:36 ὅτι ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ δι' αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτόν τὰ πάντα (all).

Vocabulary. Exercise.