Lesson 4 First and Second Declension

I. Forms

  1. Second Declension (ο-declension) (see paradigms) (Noun Rule #1)
  2. First Declension (α-declension) (see paradigms)
  3. Summary/review: Noun Rules 1-6 + Master Case Ending Chart

II. Functions - the Greek Case

  1. The 5-case system vs 8-case system
    The 5-case system The 8-case system Translation keyword
    1. Nominative 1. Nominative  
    2. Genitive 2. Genitive
    3. Ablative
    from, than
    3. Dative 4. Dative
    5. Locative
    6. Instrumental
    to, for
    in, on, at
    by, with
    4. Accusative 7. Accusative  
    5. Vocative 8. Vocative  

  2. Illustration of the different nuances of the Greek case:
    Gentive: kind of time John 3:2 οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτός.
    This man came to Him at night. (not day)
    Dative: a point in time Lk 12:20 ἄφρων, ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ τὴν ψυχήν σου ἀπαιτοῦσιν.
    Fool, this night they are demanding your soul.
    Accusative: duration of time Matt 4:2 νηστεύσας ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσεράκοντα.
    Fasting for forty days and forty nights.


Matt 3:2 ἤγγικεν (he/she/it has drawn near) γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.
Eph 5:19 Singing and making melody τῇ καρδίᾳ ὑμῶν (your) τῷ κυρίῳ.
Matt 8:16 ἐξέβαλεν (he/she/it cast out) τὰ μνεύματα λόγῳ.
(We have not learned the third declension, but from the article τά, what would you guess the case of μνεύματα to be?)
1John 5:3 For this is ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοϋ, that we would (continually) keep his commandments, and his commandments are not hard.
Should this be “love of God” (subjective genitive, God = the subject of love) or “love for God” (objective genitive, God = the object of love)?
Ro 1:17a
For δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ is being revealed in it (i.e., gospel).
  • Possessive genitive: “God's righteousness” (the righteousness that God has)
  • Descriptive genitive: “the God kind of righteousness”
  • Genitive of source: “the righteousness from God” (the righteousness that God bestows)
  • Subjective genitive: “God's making right (his people)”
  • Objective genitive: “God's being vindicated as righteous”
In the Hebrew tradition, God’s righteousness is the way he acts, and notably the way he acts in maintaining the covenant. Such an idea was quite foreign to Greek thought. Clearly, the character of God is involved in the sense that what he does and provides must be in keeping with his nature. But just as clearly, the expression must go beyond this to include the activity of God. The gospel would not be the good news if it simply disclosed the righteousness of God. --Expositor's Bible Commentary


Vocabulary. Paradigms of ἔργον and φωνή. Exercise.