II. Functions - the Greek Case
|The 5-case system||The 8-case system||Translation keyword|
|1. Nominative||1. Nominative|
|2. Genitive||2. Genitive
|3. Dative||4. Dative
in, on, at
|4. Accusative||7. Accusative|
|5. Vocative||8. Vocative|
|Gentive: kind of time||John 3:2||οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτός.
This man came to Him at night. (not day)
|Dative: a point in time||Lk 12:20||ἄφρων, ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ τὴν ψυχήν σου ἀπαιτοῦσιν.
Fool, this night they are demanding your soul.
|Accusative: duration of time||Matt 4:2||νηστεύσας ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσεράκοντα.
Fasting for forty days and forty nights.
|Matt 3:2||ἤγγικεν (he/she/it has drawn near) γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.|
|Eph 5:19||Singing and making melody τῇ καρδίᾳ ὑμῶν (your) τῷ κυρίῳ.|
|Matt 8:16||ἐξέβαλεν (he/she/it cast out) τὰ μνεύματα λόγῳ.
(We have not learned the third declension, but from the article τά, what would you guess the case of μνεύματα to be?)
|1John 5:3||For this is ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοϋ, that we would (continually) keep his commandments, and his commandments are not hard.
Should this be love of God (subjective genitive, God = the subject of love) or love for God (objective genitive, God = the object of love)?
||For δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ is being revealed in it (i.e., gospel).
Vocabulary. Paradigms of ἔργον and φωνή. Exercise.