Lesson 3 Introduction: Verbs

I. Terminology and Concept

II. Illustration of exegetical significance of the Greek verb:
1Jn 3:9 Πᾶς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἁμαρτίαν οὐ ποιεῖ, ὅτι σπέρμα αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ μένει, καὶ οὐ δύναται ἁμαρτάνειν, ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ γεγέννηται.
Everyone who has been born of God does not practice sin, because His seed abides in him, and he is not able to sin, because he has been born of God.
1Jn 2:1 Τεκνία μου, ταῦτα γράφω ὑμῖν ἵνα μὴ ἁμάρτητε. καὶ ἐάν τις ἁμάρτῃ, παράκλητον ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν δίκαιον.
My children, these things I write to you so that you would not sin. And if anyone would sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the Righteous.

Issue: Is John self-conflicting in these statements? Can or cannot a Christian sin?

Lk 9:23
εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἔρχεσθαι, ἀρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καθ' ἡμέραν καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι.
If anyone wants to come after me, let him deny himself and let him take up his cross daily and let him follow me.

Issue: There are three imperatives in this verse: “deny” and “take up” are in the aorist tense, but “follow” is in the present. Does this verse teach that we, followers of Christ, should deny ourselves once, take up our cross once, but should follow Him continuously.

Jn 19:30 Τετέλεσται.It is finished.”

This one word summary of Jesus' life and death is perhaps the single most important statement in all of Scripture. The word means "to complete," "to bring to perfection." Jesus had fully done the work of God the Father sent him to do... But the tense of the verb, the "perfect" tense, brings out even more of what Jesus was saying. The perfect describes an action that was fully completed and has present-day consequences. Jesus could have used the aorist, ἐτέλησεν, and simply said, "The work is done." But there is more... Because Jesus fully completed his task, the ongoing effects are that you and I are offered the free gift of salvation so that we can be with him forever. Praise the Lord. Τετέλεσται. --William D. Mounce, BBG p.218

III. Present Active Indicative (see paradigm of λύω)


John 1:51 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν.

Mark 9:24 πιστεύω. (The shortest and greatest sentence!)

John 9:35 σὺ πιστεύεις εἰς τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου;

John 5:42 τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἔχετε.

Vocabulary. PAI paradigm of λύω. Exercise.