Septuagint in the Pauline Epistles
I. The Epistle of Romans


The Righteous Will Live by Faith
Hab 2:3-4 διότι ἔτι ὅρασις εἰς καιρὸν καὶ ἀνατελεῖ εἰς πέρας καὶ οὐκ εἰς κενόν. ἐὰν ὑστερήσῃ ὑπόμεινον αὐτόν ὅτι ἐρχόμενος ἥξει καὶ οὐ μὴ χρονίσῃ. 4ἐὰν ὑποστείληται οὐκ εὐδοκεῖ ἡ ψυχή μου ἐν αὐτῷ, ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεώς μου ζήσεται. Rom 1:17 δικαιοσύνη γὰρ θεοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ ἀποκαλύπτεται ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν, καθὼς γέγραπται· ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.

Gal 3:11 ὅτι δὲ ἐν νόμῳ οὐδεὶς δικαιοῦται παρὰ τῷ θεῷ δῆλον, ὅτι ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται·

Heb 10:37-38 ἔτι γὰρ μικρὸν ὅσον ὅσον, ἐρχόμενος ἥξει καὶ οὐ χρονίσει· 38ὁ δὲ δίκαιός μου ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται, καὶ ἐὰν ὑποστείληται, οὐκ εὐδοκεῖ ἡ ψυχή μου ἐν αὐτῷ.

LXX has a very strong tone (shall certainly come, would NEVER delay). The Heb 10:37 quote is mild in tone (simple futures), but points to the Messiah by adding an article (the one coming).
There are slight differences between Heb 10:38 and Hab 2:4: (a) reverse order of the clauses, (b) the position of μου in the "righteous" clause. HMT has וְצַדִּיק בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה (and the righteous shall live in his faith). Where does LXX get the μου from?
Rom 1:17 and Gal 3:11 are almost an exact quote of Hab 2:4, except omitting μου.


God's Name Blasphemed
Isa 52:5 καὶ νῦν τί ὧδέ ἐστε τάδε λέγει κύριος ὅτι ἐλήμφθη ὁ λαός μου δωρεάν θαυμάζετε καὶ ὀλολύζετε τάδε λέγει κύριος δι᾿ ὑμᾶς διὰ παντὸς τὸ ὄνομά μου βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν.

Ezek 36:20 καὶ εἰσήλθοσαν εἰς τὰ ἔθνη οὗ εἰσήλθοσαν ἐκεῖ καὶ ἐβεβήλωσαν τὸ ὄνομά μου τὸ ἅγιον ἐν τῷ λέγεσθαι αὐτούς λαὸς κυρίου οὗτοι καὶ ἐκ τῆς γῆς αὐτοῦ ἐξεληλύθασιν.

Rom 2:24 τὸ γὰρ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ δι᾿ ὑμᾶς βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, καθὼς γέγραπται.
Isa 52:5 is a close quote, but Ezek 36:20 is an allusion.


That You Might Be Justified in Your Words
Ps 51:4 (LXX 50:6) σοὶ μόνῳ ἥμαρτον καὶ τὸ πονηρὸν ἐνώπιόν σου ἐποίησα ὅπως ἂν δικαιωθῇς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου καὶ νικήσῃς ἐν τῷ κρίνεσθαί σε. Rom 3:4 μὴ γένοιτο· γινέσθω δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἀληθής, πᾶς δὲ ἄνθρωπος ψεύστης, καθὼς γέγραπται· ὅπως ἂν δικαιωθῇς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου καὶ νικήσεις ἐν τῷ κρίνεσθαί σε.
Almost an exact quote, except Rom 3:4 has νικήσεις (future indicative) instead of νικήσῃς (aorist subjunctive).


No One Does Good, All Have Turned Away
Ps 14:1-3 (LXX 13:1-3) 1εἰς τὸ τέλος ψαλμὸς τῷ Δαυιδ εἶπεν ἄφρων ἐν καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν θεός διέφθειραν καὶ ἐβδελύχθησαν ἐν ἐπιτηδεύμασιν οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν χρηστότητα οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνός. Rom 3:10-18 10καθὼς γέγραπται ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν δίκαιος οὐδὲ εἷς,
2κύριος ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ διέκυψεν ἐπὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοῦ ἰδεῖν εἰ ἔστιν συνίων ἢ ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν. 11οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ συνίων, οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν.
3πάντες ἐξέκλιναν ἅμα ἠχρεώθησαν· οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν χρηστότητα, οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνός. τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος ὁ λάρυγξ αὐτῶν, ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν, ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν· ὧν τὸ στόμα ἀρᾶς καὶ πικρίας γέμει, ὀξεῖς οἱ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐκχέαι αἷμα, σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν, καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔγνωσαν. οὐκ ἔστιν φόβος θεοῦ ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν. 12πάντες ἐξέκλιναν ἅμα ἠχρεώθησαν· οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ποιῶν χρηστότητα, [οὐκ ἔστιν] ἕως ἑνός. 13τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος ὁ λάρυγξ αὐτῶν, ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν, ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν· 14ὧν τὸ στόμα ἀρᾶς καὶ πικρίας γέμει, 15ὀξεῖς οἱ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐκχέαι αἷμα, 16σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν, 17καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔγνωσαν. 18οὐκ ἔστιν φόβος θεοῦ ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν.
Ps 53:1-3 (LXX 52:2-4) 1εἶπεν ἄφρων ἐν καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν θεός διεφθάρησαν καὶ ἐβδελύχθησαν ἐν ἀνομίαις οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν ἀγαθόν. Rom 3:10-12 10καθὼς γέγραπται ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν δίκαιος οὐδὲ εἷς,
2ὁ θεὸς ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ διέκυψεν ἐπὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοῦ ἰδεῖν εἰ ἔστιν συνίων ἢ ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν. 11οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ συνίων, οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν.
3πάντες ἐξέκλιναν ἅμα ἠχρεώθησαν· οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν ἀγαθόν, οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνός. 12πάντες ἐξέκλιναν ἅμα ἠχρεώθησαν· οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ποιῶν χρηστότητα, [οὐκ ἔστιν] ἕως ἑνός.
Ps 5:9 (LXX 5:10) ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν ἀλήθεια ἡ καρδία αὐτῶν ματαία τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος ὁ λάρυγξ αὐτῶν, ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν.
Ps 140:3 (LXX 139:4) ἠκόνησαν γλῶσσαν αὐτῶν ὡσεὶ ὄφεως ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν διάψαλμα.
Rom 3:13 τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος ὁ λάρυγξ αὐτῶν, ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν, ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν·
Ps 10:7 (LXX 9:28) οὗ ἀρᾶς τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ γέμει καὶ πικρίας καὶ δόλου ὑπὸ τὴν γλῶσσαν αὐτοῦ κόπος καὶ πόνος. Rom 3:14 ὧν τὸ στόμα ἀρᾶς καὶ πικρίας γέμει,
Isa 59:7-8 οἱ δὲ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐπὶ πονηρίαν τρέχουσιν ταχινοὶ ἐκχέαι αἷμα· καὶ οἱ διαλογισμοὶ αὐτῶν διαλογισμοὶ ἀφρόνων, σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν, 8καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ οἴδασιν, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν κρίσις ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν· αἱ γὰρ τρίβοι αὐτῶν διεστραμμέναι ἃς διοδεύουσιν, καὶ οὐκ οἴδασιν εἰρήνην. Rom 3:15-17 ὀξεῖς οἱ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐκχέαι αἷμα, 16σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν, 17καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔγνωσαν.
Ps 36:1 (LXX 35:2) φησὶν ὁ παράνομος τοῦ ἁμαρτάνειν ἐν ἑαυτῷ, οὐκ ἔστιν φόβος θεοῦ ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτοῦ. Rom 3:18 οὐκ ἔστιν φόβος θεοῦ ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν.
R. Grant Jones: “Most likely, in Romans 3.12-18, Paul was quoting Psalm 14.3 from LXX, rather than from HMT. If he were relying upon the Hebrew, he had to string together phrases from 6 separate locations in this passage: Psalm 14.1-3 (or 53.1-3), 5.9, 140.3, 10.7, Isaiah 59.7-9, and Psalm 36.1.”


Abraham's Faith Credited as Righteousness
Gen 15:6 καὶ ἐπίστευσεν Ἄβραμ τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. Rom 4:3 τί γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ λέγει; ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην.
Rom 4:9 Ὁ μακαρισμὸς οὖν οὗτος ἐπὶ τὴν περιτομὴν ἢ καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀκροβυστίαν; λέγομεν γάρ· ἐλογίσθη τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἡ πίστις εἰς δικαιοσύνην.
Rom 4:22 διὸ [καὶ] ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην.

Gal 3:6 Καθὼς Ἀβραὰμ ἐπίστευσεν τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην·

Jas 2:23 καὶ ἐπληρώθη ἡ γραφὴ ἡ λέγουσα· ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην καὶ φίλος θεοῦ ἐκλήθη.

Mostly quoted exactly (except Abram changed to Abraham). “Abraham believed in God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness.” Romans 4:9 has ἡ πίστις as the subject: “Faith was reckoned to Abraham as righteousness.”


Blessed Is He Whose Sins Are Forgiven
Ps 32:1-2 (LXX 31:1-2) τῷ Δαυιδ· συνέσεως. Μακάριοι ὧν ἀφέθησαν αἱ ἀνομίαι καὶ ὧν ἐπεκαλύφθησαν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι· 2μακάριος ἀνήρ οὗ οὐ μὴ λογίσηται κύριος ἁμαρτίαν, οὐδὲ ἔστιν ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ δόλος. Rom 4:7-8 μακάριοι ὧν ἀφέθησαν αἱ ἀνομίαι καὶ ὧν ἐπεκαλύφθησαν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι· 8μακάριος ἀνὴρ οὗ οὐ μὴ λογίσηται κύριος ἁμαρτίαν.
Exact quote.


Abraham's Descendants Named through Isaac
Gen 21:12 εἶπεν δὲ ὁ θεὸς τῷ Ἀβραὰμ· μὴ σκληρὸν ἔστω τὸ ῥῆμα ἐναντίον σου περὶ τοῦ παιδίου καὶ περὶ τῆς παιδίσκης· πάντα ὅσα ἐὰν εἴπῃ σοι Σάρρα ἄκουε τῆς φωνῆς αὐτῆς, ὅτι ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα. Rom 9:7 οὐδ᾿ ὅτι εἰσὶν σπέρμα Ἀβραὰμ πάντες τέκνα, ἀλλ᾿· ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα.

Heb 11:18 πρὸς ὃν ἐλαλήθη ὅτι ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα,

Exact quote.


I Will Have Mercy on Whom I Have Mercy
Ex 33:19 καὶ εἶπεν· Ἐγὼ παρελεύσομαι πρότερός σου τῇ δόξῃ μου καὶ καλέσω ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου κύριος ἐναντίον σου· καὶ ἐλεήσω ὃν ἂν ἐλεῶ καὶ οἰκτιρήσω ὃν ἂν οἰκτίρω. Rom 9:15 τῷ Μωϋσεῖ γὰρ λέγει· ἐλεήσω ὃν ἂν ἐλεῶ καὶ οἰκτιρήσω ὃν ἂν οἰκτίρω.
Exact quote.


I Will Call Her ‘My Loved One’ Who Is Not
Hos 2:23 (LXX 2:25) καὶ σπερῶ αὐτὴν ἐμαυτῷ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐλεήσω τὴν Οὐκ-ἠλεημένην καὶ ἐρῶ τῷ Οὐ-λαῷ-μου λαός μου εἶ σύ καὶ αὐτὸς ἐρεῖ κύριος ὁ θεός μου εἶ σύ. Rom 9:25 ὡς καὶ ἐν τῷ Ὡσηὲ λέγει· καλέσω τὸν οὐ λαόν μου λαόν μου καὶ τὴν οὐκ ἠγαπημένην ἠγαπημένην·
A paraphrase. LXX, which follows HMT faithfully, has “I will mercy the Not-having-been-mercied”, while Paul changes the participle from ἐλεέω to ἀγαπάω: “(I will call) the not-having-been-loved having-been-loved”; and LXX has “I will say to the Not-my-people ‘YOU are my people’”, while Paul changes the verb from λέγω to καλέω: “I will call the not-my-people my people.”


Seven Thousand Who Have Not Followed Baal
1Kg 19:18 καὶ καταλείψεις ἐν Ἰσραήλ ἑπτὰ χιλιάδας ἀνδρῶν, πάντα γόνατα ἃ οὐκ ὤκλασαν γόνυ τῷ Βάαλ καὶ πᾶν στόμα ὃ οὐ προσεκύνησεν αὐτῷ. Rom 11:4 ἀλλὰ τί λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ χρηματισμός; κατέλιπον ἐμαυτῷ ἑπτακισχιλίους ἄνδρας, οἵτινες οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ.
Paul probably follows HMT rather than LXX; LXX has καταλείψεις (you shall leave) while HMT is וְהִשְׁאַרְתִּי (I have left). Interestingly, Baal is masculine in LXX but feminine in GNT here. RWP: “In the LXX the name Βάαλ is either masculine or feminine. The explanation is that the Jews put BOSHETH (αἰσχύνη, shame) for Baal and in the LXX the feminine article occurs because αἰσχύνη is so, though here the LXX has the masculine τῷ.”


May Their Table Become a Snare...
Ps 69:22-23 (LXX 68:23-24) γενηθήτω ἡ τράπεζα αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν εἰς παγίδα καὶ εἰς ἀνταπόδοσιν καὶ εἰς σκάνδαλον. 23σκοτισθήτωσαν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ τὸν νῶτον αὐτῶν διὰ παντὸς σύγκαμψον. Rom 11:9-10 καὶ Δαυὶδ λέγει· γενηθήτω ἡ τράπεζα αὐτῶν εἰς παγίδα καὶ εἰς θήραν καὶ εἰς σκάνδαλον καὶ εἰς ἀνταπόδομα αὐτοῖς, 10σκοτισθήτωσαν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν καὶ τὸν νῶτον αὐτῶν διὰ παντὸς σύγκαμψον.
The second verse is an exact quote, and the first verse is also very close, only replacing ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν with αὐτοῖς, adding εἰς θήραν, and some word order change.


It is the Lord's to Avenge
Deut 32:35-36 ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐκδικήσεως ἀνταποδώσω ἐν καιρῷ ὅταν σφαλῇ ὁ ποὺς αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἐγγὺς ἡμέρα ἀπωλείας αὐτῶν καὶ πάρεστιν ἕτοιμα ὑμῖν. 36ὅτι κρινεῖ κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ παρακληθήσεται, εἶδεν γὰρ παραλελυμένους αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκλελοιπότας ἐν ἐπαγωγῇ καὶ παρειμένους. Rom 12:19 μὴ ἑαυτοὺς ἐκδικοῦντες, ἀγαπητοί, ἀλλὰ δότε τόπον τῇ ὀργῇ, γέγραπται γάρ· ἐμοὶ ἐκδίκησις, ἐγὼ ἀνταποδώσω. λέγει κύριος.

Heb 10:30 οἴδαμεν γὰρ τὸν εἰπόντα· ἐμοὶ ἐκδίκησις, ἐγὼ ἀνταποδώσω. καὶ πάλιν· κρινεῖ κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ.

The Romans and Hebrews quotes, while identical, do not seem to come from LXX, but from HMT (‏לִי נָקָם וְשִׁלֵּם).


The Insults of Those Who Insult You...
Ps 69:9 (LXX 68:10) ὅτι ὁ ζῆλος τοῦ οἴκου σου κατέφαγέν με καὶ οἱ ὀνειδισμοὶ τῶν ὀνειδιζόντων σε ἐπέπεσαν ἐπ᾿ ἐμέ. Rom 15:3 καὶ γὰρ ὁ Χριστὸς οὐχ ἑαυτῷ ἤρεσεν, ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπται· οἱ ὀνειδισμοὶ τῶν ὀνειδιζόντων σε ἐπέπεσαν ἐπ᾿ ἐμέ.
Exact quote.




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