Septuagint in the Synoptic Gospels
III. Matthean Tradition


The Virgin with Child, Immanuel
Isa 7:14 διὰ τοῦτο δώσει κύριος αὐτὸς ὑμῖν σημεῖον. ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει καὶ τέξεται υἱόν, καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἐμμανουηλ. Matt 1:23 ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει καὶ τέξεται υἱόν, καὶ καλέσουσιν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἐμμανουήλ, ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον μεθ' ἡμῶν ὁ θεός.
It is basically a direct quote. The only difference is that Matthew uses καλέσουσιν (they shall call) while LXX has καλέσεις (you shall call). HMT has וְקָרָאת (and she shall call).


You Shall Not Murder, Commit Adultery
Ex 20:13-15 οὐ μοιχεύσεις. 14οὐ κλέψεις. 15οὐ φονεύσεις.

Deut 5:17-18 οὐ μοιχεύσεις. 18οὐ φονεύσεις.

Matt 5:21 Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις· οὐ φονεύσεις· ὃς δ' ἂν φονεύσῃ, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει.
Matt 5:27 Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη· οὐ μοιχεύσεις.

Jas 2:11 ὁ γὰρ εἰπών μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, εἶπεν καί· μὴ φονεύσῃς· εἰ δὲ οὐ μοιχεύεις φονεύεις δέ, γέγονας παραβάτης νόμου.

Matthew follows LXX using the future indicative, while James uses the aorist subjunctive. (See also The Commandments.)


Repaying Each According to What He Has Done
Ps 62:12 (LXX 61:13) ὅτι τὸ κράτος τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ σοί κύριε τὸ ἔλεος ὅτι σὺ ἀποδώσεις ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ.

Prov 24:12 ἐὰν δὲ εἴπῃς οὐκ οἶδα τοῦτον γίνωσκε ὅτι κύριος καρδίας πάντων γινώσκει καὶ ὁ πλάσας πνοὴν πᾶσιν αὐτὸς οἶδεν πάντα ὃς ἀποδίδωσιν ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ.

Matt 16:27 μέλλει γὰρ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεσθαι ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ, καὶ τότε ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτοῦ.

Rom 2:6 ὃς ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ·

Close quotes with minor differences. Ps 62:12 is in second person while others third person. Prov 24:12 has ἀποδίδωσιν (present) while others future tense. Matthew 16:27 has τὴν πρᾶξιν while others τὰ ἔργα.


Zion's King Will Come on a Donkey's Colt
Zech 9:9 Χαῖρε σφόδρα, θύγατερ Σιών· κήρυσσε, θύγατερ Ιερουσαλημ· ἰδοὺ ὁ βασιλεύς σου ἔρχεταί σοι, δίκαιος καὶ σῴζων αὐτός, πραῢς καὶ ἐπιβεβηκὼς ἐπὶ ὑποζύγιον καὶ πῶλον νέον. Matt 21:5 Εἴπατε τῇ θυγατρὶ Σιών· Ἰδοὺ ὁ βασιλεύς σου ἔρχεταί σοι, πραῢς καὶ ἐπιβεβηκὼς ἐπὶ ὄνον, καὶ ἐπὶ πῶλον υἱὸν ὑποζυγίου.

John 12:15 Μὴ φοβοῦ, θυγάτηρ Σιών· ἰδοὺ ὁ βασιλεύς σου ἔρχεται, καθήμενος ἐπὶ πῶλον ὄνου.

Matthew changes ἐπὶ ὑποζύγιον καὶ πῶλον νέον (on a donkey, even a young colt) to ἐπὶ ὄνον, καὶ ἐπὶ πῶλον υἱὸν ὑποζυγίου (on a donkey, even on a colt, a donkey's son), probably trying to make it clearer, and omits δίκαιος καὶ σῴζων αὐτός (righteous and a savior himself), but is otherwise a close quote. John's text is even shorter, and has ἐπὶ πῶλον ὄνου (on a donkey's colt). HMT has עָנִי (poor, afflicted) for LXX πραΰς (meek).




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