Septuagint in the Pauline Epistles
II. 1 & 2 Corinthians


Let Us Eat and Drink, For Tomorrow We Die
Isa 22:13 αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐποιήσαντο εὐφροσύνην καὶ ἀγαλλίαμα, σφάζοντες μόσχους καὶ θύοντες πρόβατα ὥστε φαγεῖν κρέα καὶ πιεῖν οἶνον λέγοντες· φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν, αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκομεν. 1Cor 15:32 εἰ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον ἐθηριομάχησα ἐν Ἐφέσῳ, τί μοι τὸ ὄφελος; εἰ νεκροὶ οὐκ ἐγείρονται, φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν, αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκομεν.
Exact quote.


The Man Became a Living Being
Gen 2:7 καὶ ἔπλασεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον χοῦν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐνεφύσησεν εἰς τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ πνοὴν ζωῆς, καὶ ἐγένετο ὁ ἄνθρωπος εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν. 1Cor 15:45 οὕτως καὶ γέγραπται, Ἐγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν· ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζῳοποιοῦν.
The Pauline text added πρῶτος and Ἀδὰμ to make it more explicit. "And the first man Adam became a living being."


Where, O Death, Is Your Victory?
Hos 13:14 ἐκ χειρὸς ᾅδου ῥύσομαι αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκ θανάτου λυτρώσομαι αὐτούς. ποῦ ἡ δίκη σου, θάνατε; ποῦ τὸ κέντρον σου, ᾅδη; παράκλησις κέκρυπται ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν μου. 1Cor 15:45 ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ νῖκος; ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον;
A loose quote. Paul has θάνατε (death) twice, while LXX used θάνατε and ᾅδη (Hades); Paul uses νῖκος (victory), while LXX has δίκη (penalty). HMT ≈ LXX.


I Will Be Their God, and They Will Be My People
Lev 26:12 καὶ ἐμπεριπατήσω ἐν ὑμῖν καὶ ἔσομαι ὑμῶν θεός καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μου λαός.

Ezek 37:27 καὶ ἔσται ἡ κατασκήνωσίς μου ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς θεός καὶ αὐτοί μου ἔσονται λαός.

Jer 32:38 (LXX 39:38) καὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν καὶ ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς θεόν.

2Cor 6:16 τίς δὲ συγκατάθεσις ναῷ θεοῦ μετὰ εἰδώλων; ἡμεῖς γὰρ ναὸς θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος, καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι ἐνοικήσω ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐμπεριπατήσω καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτῶν θεὸς καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μου λαός.
The 2Cor quote is pretty close to the Lev passage, except the people are in third person, not second person, and it adds another verb ἐνοικήσω. In the Ezek passage, instead of "I shall walk among them", it has "My tabernacle will be among them".
Jer 32:38 is added for reference, but the wording is slightly different.


Come Out and Be Separate
Isa 52:11 ἀπόστητε ἀπόστητε ἐξέλθατε ἐκεῖθεν καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε ἐξέλθατε ἐκ μέσου αὐτῆς, ἀφορίσθητε οἱ φέροντες τὰ σκεύη κυρίου.

Jer 20:34 καὶ ἐξάξω ὑμᾶς ἐκ τῶν λαῶν καὶ εἰσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς ἐκ τῶν χωρῶν οὗ διεσκορπίσθητε ἐν αὐταῖς ἐν χειρὶ κραταιᾷ καὶ ἐν βραχίονι ὑψηλῷ καὶ ἐν θυμῷ κεχυμένῳ.

2Cor 6:17 διὸ ἐξέλθατε ἐκ μέσου αὐτῶν καὶ ἀφορίσθητε, λέγει κύριος, καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε· κἀγὼ εἰσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς.
2Cor 6:17 is a combined quote from Isa 52:11 (changing "come out from her midst" to "come out from their midst", and switching order of the two clauses) and Jer 20:34.
Ezek 20:41 is not listed here, but it's similarly quoted as 20:34 ("εἰσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς").


I Will Be Your Father, You Will Be My Son
2Sam 7:14 ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν καὶ ἐὰν ἔλθῃ ἡ ἀδικία αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐλέγξω αὐτὸν ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἀνδρῶν καὶ ἐν ἁφαῖς υἱῶν ἀνθρώπων.

1Chr 17:13 ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν καὶ τὸ ἔλεός μου οὐκ ἀποστήσω ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ ὡς ἀπέστησα ἀπὸ τῶν ὄντων ἔμπροσθέν σου.

2Cor 6:18 καὶ ἔσομαι ὑμῖν εἰς πατέρα καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μοι εἰς υἱοὺς καὶ θυγατέρας, λέγει κύριος παντοκράτωρ.

Heb 1:5 Τίνι γὰρ εἶπέν ποτε τῶν ἀγγέλων· υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε; καὶ πάλιν· ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν;

Heb 1:5 is an exact quote of both OT texts, while 2Cor has a few differences: ① ἐγὼ omitted, ② third person singular changed to second person plural, and ③ "son" becomes "sons and daughters".




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