連接詞 (Conjunctions)

I. 種類與功能

  1. 對等連接詞 (Coordinating Conjunctions)
    結合 (Copulative/Continuative)καί, δέ, τέ和、且 (and)
    相反 (Contrastive/Adversative)ἀλλὰ, δέ, πλήν但,然而 (but, however)
    轉折
    (Disjunctive/Alternative)
    或 (or)
    οὐδέ, μηδέ也不 (nor)
    推論 (Inferential)οὖν, ὥστε, διό, ἄρα所以、那麼 (therefore, then)
    原因 (Causal)γάρ因為 (for, because)
    疑問 (Interrogative)εἰ是否 (if)
    πόθεν從哪裡 (from where)
    互關 (Correlative)καί... καί..., καί... τέ...⋯和⋯都 (both... and...)
    μὲν... δὲ...一方面⋯另一方面⋯ (on the one hand... on the other hand...)
    εἴτε... εἴτε...無論⋯或⋯ (whether... or...)
    οὐδέ... οὐδέ..., οὔτε... οὔτε...不⋯也不⋯ (neither... nor...)

  2. 附屬連接詞 (Subordinating Conjunctions)
    時間 (Temporal)ὅταν, ὅτε當⋯時 (when)
    ἕως直到 (until)
    πρίν在⋯之前 (before)
    地點 (Locational)ὅπου在哪裡 (where)
    目的 (Purpose)ἵνα, ὅπως為了 (in order that)
    結果 (Result)ὥστε以致 (so that)
    原因 (Causal)ὅτι, διότι, ἐπεί因為 (for, because)
    條件 (Conditional)εἰ, ἐάν如果 (if)
    比較 (Comparative)ὡς, καθώς, ὡσπερ如⋯般 (as, just as)
    退讓 (Concessive)καίπερ雖然、即使 (though, even if)
    內容 (Content/Epexegetical)ὅτι, ἵνα, ὅπωςthat


II. 後置現象 (Postpositive)


III. 用法範例

  1. γάρ  (參單字例句)
    原因
    Causal
    “for”
    太3:2 你們要悔改,因為天國近了。(和修)
    μετανοεῖτε· ἤγγικεν γὰρ ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.
    Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has drawn near.
    推論
    Inferential
    “so”
    雅1:7 這樣的人、不要想從主那裡得甚麼。
    μὴ γὰρ οἰέσθω ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος ὅτι λήμψεταί τι παρὰ τοῦ κυρίου.
    So, let that man not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord.
    轉換
    Transitional
    (= δέ)
    加1:11 弟兄們、我告訴你們⋯⋯
    Γνωρίζω γὰρ ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί...
    Now, I make known to you, brothers...

  2. δέ  (參單字例句)
    相反
    Adversative
    “but”
    馬可1:8 我是用水給你們施洗、他卻要用聖靈給你們施洗。
    ἐγὼ ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ὕδατι, αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ.
    I baptized you with water, but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.
    結合
    Continuative
    “and”
    馬太1:2 亞伯拉罕生以撒.以撒生雅各。
    Ἀβραὰμ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰσαάκ, Ἰσαὰκ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰακώβ.
    Abraham begot Isaac, and Isaac begot Jacob.
    轉換
    Transitional
    “now”“so”
    馬太1:2 這十二使徒的名:
    Τῶν δὲ δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα·
    Now these are the names of the twelve apostles:

  3. ἵνα  (參單字例句)
    目的
    Purpose
    “in order that”
    約壹2:1 我將這些話寫給你們、是要叫你們不犯罪。
    ταῦτα γράφω ὑμῖν ἵνα μὴ ἁμάρτητε.
    I am writing these things to you, in order that you might not sin.
    結果
    Result
    “so that”
    約翰9:2 拉比,是誰——是這人還是他父母——犯了罪,以致他生來瞎眼?
    ῥαββί, τίς ἥμαρτεν, οὗτος ἢ οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ, ἵνα τυφλὸς γεννηθῇ;
    Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, with the result that he should be born blind?
    內容
    Content
    “that”
    約翰4:34 我的食物、就是遵行差我來者的旨意。
    ἐμὸν βρῶμά ἐστιν ἵνα ποιήσω τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πέμψαντός με.
    My food is that I should do the will of the one who sent me.

  4. ὅτι  (參單字例句)
    原因
    Causal
    “because”
    馬太5:3 虛心的人有福了.因為天國是他們的。
    Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.
    Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
    闡明
    Explanatory
    “that”
    約翰3:19 光來到世間⋯⋯定他們的罪就是在此。
    αὕτη δέ ἐστιν ἡ κρίσις ὅτι τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον....
    And this is the judgment, that the light has come....
    內容
    Content
    “that”
    馬太5:21 你們聽見有吩咐古人的話。
    Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις.
    You heard that it was said to the ancient people.



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