Vowel Contraction

 
  α αι ε ει η ο ου οι ω
α α α α ω ω ω
ε η ει ει η ου ου οι ω
ο ω ου οι ω οι ου ου οι ω

Make observations, e.g., for α, α + ο-sound = ω, α + others = α.


 

Rules (uncontracted <- contracted)

1. ου is formed by εο, οε, and οο.
    Ex. ποιοῦμεν = ποιε + ομεν

2. ει is formed by εε.
    Ex. ποιεῖτε = ποιε + ετε

3. ω is formed by almost any combination of ο/ω with any other vowel, except for rule #1.
    Ex. ἀγαπῶσι = ἀγαπα + ουσι = ἀγαπα + ονσι

4. α is formed by αε.
    Ex. ἀγαπᾷ = ἀγαπα + ει

5. η is formed by εα.
    Ex. ποιεῇ = ποιε + = ποει + εαι = ποιε + εσαι

6. οι is formed by οει.
    Ex. πληροῖς = πληρο + εις

7. Contraction with diphthongs
     a. If contract vowel = first vowel of diphthong, they simplify: ει = ε + ει, ου = ο + ου
         Ex. ποιεῖς = ποιε + εις

     b. If contract vowel ≠ first vowel of diphthong, they contract: ου = ε + ου
        (If second vowel of diphthong = iota, it subscripts; otherwise it drops off.)
         Ex. ποιοῦσι = ποιε + ουσι

8. Contract verbs contract as if the true personal endings are those visible in the present active indicative.
 
 

Alternative Rules (uncontracted -> contracted)

1. Two like vowels form their common long vowel
    α + α = α
    Exceptions: ε + ε = ει    ο + ο = ου

2. An ο or ω will overcome an α, ε or η regardless of their order, and form ω.
    α + ο = ω    ο + α = ω
    Exceptions: ε + ο = ου   ο + ε = ου

3. If α comes before ε/η, they contract to α. If ε/η comes before α, they contract to η.
    α + ε/η = α    ε/η + α = η

4. When a single vowel is followed by a diphthong that begins with the same vowel, the two similar vowels simplify and the second vowel remains the same.
    ο + ου = ου   α + =

5. When a single vowel is followed by a diphthong that begins with a different vowel, the single vowel and the first vowel of the diphthong contract according to the regular rules. If the third vowel is an upsilon it will drop off. If it is an iota it will subscript.
    α + ου = ω   ε + ου = ου
    Exceptions: ο + ει = οι   ο + = οι

Examples:
    ἀγαπα + ονσι = ἀγαπα + ουσι = ἀγαπῶσι
    ποιε + εσαι = ποιε + εαι = ποιε + = ποιεῇ
 
 

Contract Verbs - Present Indicative

 
  αγαπα-   ποιε-   πληρο-
α ἀγαπ ε-ω ποιῶ ο-ω πληρῶ
α-εις ἀγαπᾷς ε-εις ποιεῖς ο-εις πληροῖς
α-ει ἀγαπ ε-ει ποιεῖ ο-ει πληροῖ
α-ομεν ἀγαπῶμεν ε-ομεν ποιοῦμεν ο-ομεν πληροῦμεν
α-ετε ἀγαπᾶτε ε-ετε ποιεῖτε ο-ετε πληροῦτε
α-ουσι ἀγαπῶσι(ν) ε-ουσι ποιοῦσι(ν) ο-ουσι πληροῦσι(ν)
α-ομαι ἀγαπῶμαι ε-ομαι ποιοῦμαι ο-ομαι πληροῦμαι
α-ῃ ἀγαπᾷ ε-ῃ ποιῇ ο-ῃ πληροῖ
α-εται ἀγαπᾶται ε-εται ποιεῖται ο-εται πληροῦται
α-ομεθα ἀγαπώμεθα ε-ομεθα ποιούμεθα ο-ομεθα πληρούμεθα
α-εσθε ἀγαπᾶσθε ε-εσθε ποιεῖσθε ο-εσθε πληροῦσθε
α-ονται ἀγαπῶνται ε-ονται ποιοῦνται ο-ονται πληροῦνται

 
 

Back to Main || Lesson 11